Subject: History / General History
QuestionLynn Hunt, The Making of the West
Chapter 191. The term modernity was often applied to this period because it
A. outlines the ways in which almost all aspects of European life saw a rejection of past methods, morals, and manners.
B. encompasses both the fruits of industrialization and the general acceptance that liberal capitalism was the best method for bringing about social happiness.
C. describes the total abandonment of conventional social behavior in Europe, as characterized by extremely lax sexual mores and by anarchical economics.
D. captures the accelerated pace of life, urbanization, mass politics, and artistic responses to all of these changes.2. The discovery of this medicine removed a roadblock to European conquest of Africa.
D. Sodium bicarbonate3. Cecil Rhodes not only cornered the market in South African diamonds, but he also
A. became the British prime minister in the 1890s.
B. built a railroad running from Capetown in South Africa to Cairo in Egypt.
C. believed that the world would be a better place if more of it was controlled by Britain.
D. opposed British policies in Africa, criticizing the oppression of Africans.4. In pursuing its program for modernization, the Meiji government
A. gave overly favorable trade agreements to technologically advanced Western powers.
B. incurred the wrath and intractable resistance of its artisan and merchant classes.
C. did not tolerate anyone who opposed modernization.
D. received financial support from France.5. Russia encouraged anti-Japanese groups in which country?
D. Manchuria6. After a brief war in 1898, Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to
B. the United States.
C. Great Britain.
D. France.7. In the 1890s, Italy joined the race for imperial acquisitions and sent an army to conquer
A. Ethiopia, only to be soundly defeated.
B. Argentina, successfully establishing Italian control over Buenos Aires.
C. Ethiopia, defeating the Ethiopian army at the battle of Adowa.
D. the Sudan, which was, however, claimed by the British.8. Sun Yat-Sen and his followers were able to overthrow the Qing dynasty and declare China a republic in 1911 because of
A. support from Japan, which wanted China to become a client state.
B. arms and marines that had secretly been smuggled to them by the United States.
C. the Qing’s loss of credibility after it supported the failed Boxer Uprising.
D. encouragement from the Qing ruler, Dowager Empress Tz’u-hsi (Cixi).9. The founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885 represented
A. a milestone in Indian self-government.
B. a direct and unprecedented challenge to Britain’s right to rule by educated Indian elites.
C. yet another British increase in direct political control over the Indian subcontinent.
D. a liberalization of British policy toward Indian participation in colonial government.10. The British sponsored the Muslim League in India because British officials
A. believed this was the best forum for training future Indian leaders.
B. saw it as a way of increasing the power of local Indians in government.
C. were trying to make up for the shortage of Indian officials in Muslim regions.
D. wanted to divide Muslims and Hindus in the Indian National Congress.11. The marriage of American Jeanette Jerome to Lord Randolph Churchill reflected
A. a growing trend in marriages across class lines.
B. the emergence of America as Britain’s equal in imperialism.
C. the migration of British aristocrats to America to avoid rising British taxes.
D. the blurring of social distinctions between aristocrats and rich bankers and industrialists.12. The overall European population was growing at the end of the nineteenth century, but
A. most governments worried that they lacked enough manpower for their armies.
B. the birthrate was falling in almost every country.
C. governments still struggled to collect enough taxes to pay for urban improvements.
D. average life expectancy did not increase.13. Despite rapid modernization, old ways and custom still survived in eastern Europe, as exemplified by the Balkan retention of the
D. Bildung.14. In Great Britain, theorist Havelock Ellis (1859–1939. emerged as a practitioner of the new field of
B. political economy.
D. sociology.15. In general, large numbers from rural Sicily, Ireland, and Scandinavia emigrated because
A. the population was expanding so rapidly that these home countries did not have enough jobs to employ the growing labor pool.
B. none of these countries was an independent, democratic state, and people left to find more freedom.
C. American entrepreneurs who needed workers targeted these people and gave them large signing bonuses to emigrate.
D. these three areas lagged behind the rest of Europe in unionization.16. Thousands of Sicilians left for northern Europe and the United States as a result of
A. the new Italian government’s economic favoritism toward northern Italy.
B. the replacement of olive oil with palm oil in industrial soap production.
C. the suppression of working-class organizations and labor unions in Italy.
D. Sicily’s nearly worthless, eroded soil of their island.17. In 1893, the British Fabian Society helped to
A. found the Labour Party.
B. launch the suffragette movement.
C. bring home rule to Ireland.
D. bring Marxism to Britain.18. Sigmund Freud’s theory of the human psyche alarmed many because it stated that
A. sexuality was an unimportant element in human life.
B. sexual molestation of children was common.
C. humans were motivated by irrational drives, not only by logical thought.
D. overstimulation by modern aspects of society was causing hysteria and neuroses.19. Which of the following was not a scientific innovation during this period?
A. Einstein’s theories about space and time
B. Marie Curie’s work with radioactive elements
C. Max Planck’s quantum theorem
D. Watson and Crick’s discovery of DNA20. Scientists Antoine Becquerel, Marie Curie, and Max Planck all argued that
A. fellow scientist Alfred Nobel’s invention of dynamite in 1866 would one day lead to a worldwide military conflagration.
B. completion of the periodic table would revolutionize commercial application of chemical compounds by vastly facilitating their reproduction.
C. matter was not solid but, rather, made up of mutable atoms, themselves made up of subatomic particles moving about a core.
D. the spontaneous emission of radiation occurred directly from unstable atomic nuclei, which, if marshaled, could be used medically to treat tumors.21. How did fauvism, cubism, and expressionism differ significantly from art nouveau?
A. Fauvism, cubism, and expressionism stressed the unpleasant aspects of industrial society, while art nouveau emphasized beauty that could help people escape from it.
B. The first three styles were found throughout Europe, while art nouveau was really popular only in France.
C. Art nouveau, unlike fauvism, cubism, or expressionism, was not influenced by Asian art or philosophy.
D. Art nouveau never became commercially viable, but the paintings of fauvists, cubists, and expressionists sold for high prices from the start.22. The Russian Ballet’s performance of The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky in 1913 was
A. a tribute to classical ballet in the midst of modern and innovative musical compositions.
B. choreographed with experimental bodily expression and awkward poses.
C. a flop at the box office.
D. an artistic foreshadowing of the Russian communist revolution.23. The new mass journalism of this period was characterized by
A. an increase in sensational stories in newspapers and an emphasis on spreading information quickly.
B. a broadening of the literary scope of newspapers, to keep up with the expansion of commercial fiction.
C. a merging of political opinions in newspapers toward the center, an increased desire for “objectivity,” and the abandoning of specific liberal, conservative, or socialist points of view.
D. increased prices to keep up with mounting wages and to boost profits for the new press barons.24. Socialism led to a number of working-class parties, of which the largest by 1890 was the
A. Socialist Party in France.
B. Labour Party in England.
C. Social Democratic Party in Germany.
D. Marxist Party in Russia.25. The Second International (1889. was an organization that sought
A. cooperation between banks in various countries.
B. Marxist communist revolution.
C. European cooperation in colonial Africa to divide up the continent.
D. international peace through a system of mandatory negotiations over conflicts.26. In 1911, Liberals initiated a new social policy enacted in the
A. Home Rule Bill, which gave Ireland its own parliament.
B. Maternal Aid Bill, which provided subsistence incomes for single mothers.
C. Old Age Pension Appropriation.
D. National Insurance Act, a system of relief for the unemployed.27. In France, anti-Semitism became a hotly contested political issue with the arrest in 1894 of a Jewish army officer for espionage, particularly after
A. Conservative National Assembly leaders admitted having hired someone to plant the evidence found in Dreyfus’s office.
B. it was admitted by Berlin that Dreyfus had indeed passed military secrets to German embassy officials.
C. Dreyfus leaked a military memorandum that revealed widespread anti-Semitism in the French army.
D. Émile Zola published “J’accuse” on the front page of a popular Paris newspaper.28. The ultranationalist, anti-Semitic leader of the Austrian Christian Social Party who was elected mayor of Vienna in 1895 was
A. Karl Lueger.
B. Horst Wessel.
C. Paul Kruger.
D. Anton Drexler.29. Violent attacks against Jews in Russia that were condoned by officials were known as
D. podaroks.30. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was caused by
A. troops firing on a crowd of workers protesting their inhumane working conditions.
B. Tsar Nicholas II’s refusal to allow Lenin and his Bolsheviks back into the country after their exile.
C. a bitter dispute between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks in the Duma.
D. the successful Boxer Uprising in China, inspiring Russian peasants to take up arms.31. Despite the different goals of peasants, industrial workers, professionals, and others participating in the Russian Revolution of 1905, they united because of
A. violence against protesters and the tsar’s refusal to make genuine constitutional reforms.
B. the charismatic leadership of V. I. Lenin.
C. the Bolsheviks, who were ready to step in and seize power if these groups did not unite to keep them out.
D. the impending threat of German invasion, which had destabilized the government.32. Kaiser William II dismissed Bismarck because
A. he became convinced that Bismarck not only hindered his nationalistic plans but also might prove to be a rival for power.
B. by this time (1888), Bismarck was so old that his governing style was becoming capricious and worrisome.
C. William II opposed Bismarck’s ideas about German nationalism and imperial expansion in East Africa.
D. William II opposed Bismarck’s idea of uniting all German-speaking peoples in Europe by annexing Austria.33. In 1905 and 1911, Germany risked conflict with France by attempting to assert its strength in
D. Algeria.Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West
Chapter 181. In 1859, graffiti reading “VERDI,” which appeared on the walls of Italian cities, represented
A. opposition to the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II, whose opponents used an insulting acronym for “Victor Emmanuel Re d’Idioti” (“king of Idiots”).
B. a reference to the green (Italian verde. flag of the Piedmontese nationalists.
C. the Italian people’s mania for the new operas of Giuseppe Verdi.
D. a cryptic call for Italian unification under the leadership of Vittorio Emmanuele Re d’Italia (“king of Italy”).2. The revolutions of 1848 led to all of the following developments except
A. the rise of nationalism.
B. the emergence of Realpolitik.
C. the fall of the Second Empire.
D. the ousting of Klemens von Metternich from power.3. Napoleon III offered the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph’s brother, Maximilian,
A. his allegiance in a Franco-Austrian war against Russia.
B. the chance to replace the former king of Spain, recently overthrown in a military coup.
C. control of Mexico and ultimately of all Central America.
D. his support in Maximilian’s plan to seize the imperial throne from his brother.4. The Crimean War began as a war between
A. Russia, Walachia, and Moldavia.
B. France and Russia.
C. England and Russia.
D. Russia and the Ottoman Empire.5. In the Crimean War of 1853–1856, Britain and France fought to
A. save Greece from the Ottoman Empire.
B. defend the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment by Russia.
C. protect the Bulgarians from Austro-Hungary massacres.
D. stop Prussia from annexing parts of Denmark.6. Florence Nightingale became famous in the mid-nineteenth century as
A. a composer.
B. a suffragist.
C. an abolitionist.
D. a nurse.7. Although Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs, a free, mobile labor force was stymied by
A. lengthy military conscription that kept men in the army for twenty-five years.
B. a lack of roads and rail transport.
C. the fact that zemstvos (local councils. often denied former serfs’ requests for permission to move.
D. the fact that former serfs remained tied to a system of communal landowning and decision making.8. Italian unification in 1861 was led by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia because
A. it had industry, a good economy, a strong army, and the backing of France.
B. the pope would work only with prime minister Camillo di Cavour and no one else.
C. it was the home of Giuseppe Garibaldi and most of his “Red Shirts.”
D. its strategic location meant that unification would be impossible without its support.9. In exchange for French help in driving Austria out of Italy, Cavour offered Napoleon III
A. unchallenged French occupation of Rome.
B. Piedmont-Sardinia’s support of French claims in the Balkans.
C. Savoy and the city of Nice.
D. Sardinia.10. William I appointed Otto von Bismarck chancellor in 1862 in the hopes that he would
A. provoke France into a war so that Prussia could seize Alsace-Lorraine.
B. put down the growing power of the liberals in the Prussian parliament.
C. negotiate with Polish nationalists so they would accept their role in the Prussian state.
D. turn the public against Karl Marx and other leading German socialists.11. Bismarck sought to convince William I and the Junkers that a more powerful Germany could be built
A. “by convincing Germans in Austria and elsewhere that we are all German brothers.”
B. not “by speeches and majority decisions . . . but by iron and blood.”
C. by “continuing . . . the congress system so effectively pioneered by our Austrian brother Count Metternich.”
D. “by showing . . . a firm hand to our neighbors, . . . and a generous hand to our citizens.”12. Which of the following was not a reform granted by Emperor Francis Joseph in Austria-Hungary?
A. Ethnic minorities could receive an education.
B. Ethnic minorities could use their own language to communicate with officials.
C. Internal trade barriers were lifted.
D. Compulsory military service ended for nobles and peasants.13. Following Austria’s defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, Francis Joseph reluctantly agreed to the establishment of a “dual monarchy,” which granted Magyars
A. the right to marry into the Habsburg royal family.
B. a separate Hungarian legislature whose approval would be required for all future declarations of war.
C. the right to compete on an equal basis with Austrians for posts in the imperial civil service.
D. a restored Hungarian parliament with control over domestic matters in Hungary.14. In Victorian Britain, a law was passed by Parliament that enabled women to
A. enter medical schools.
B. own property or keep wages they earned.
D. appear in public at night without a male companion.15. In 1848, the United States added which of the following to its territory?
A. North and South Dakota
D. California16. The British made Canada a united, self-governing dominion in 1867, in part to
A. reduce colonial administration expenses more urgently needed in India.
B. undercut a demand by the United States that it be allowed to annex Canada.
C. encourage the Irish to emigrate there.
D. encourage other colonies to assimilate British mores, tastes, and opinions more quickly.17. Historians use the concept of a “Second” Industrial Revolution to refer to
A. the new sociocultural environment that emerged as a result of industrialization.
B. German industry’s surpassing of Great Britain in both output and profit.
C. the rise of heavy industries (coal, iron, and steel), railroads, and electricity in Great Britain after textiles and steam power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
D. industrialization of former colonies like Canada and the United States.18. Which one of the following countries spent just as much on education in the last quarter of the nineteenth century as it did on its military?
B. Great Britain
D. Russia19. The economic boom of 1871–1872 was
A. precipitated by a speculative rush on the Paris, Berlin, and London stock exchanges for shares in the Suez Canal Company.
B. generated by increased demand for steel and rail track needed to rebuild trade networks after the destruction wrought by the war.
C. followed in 1873 by a severe economic crisis, inaugurating decades of unpredictable and socially destabilizing economic fluctuations.
D. uninterrupted until 1890, transforming the newly united German state into the economic powerhouse of continental Europe.20. In the late nineteenth century, industrialization tended to be capital intensive, which means that
A. industries tended to mass themselves around capital cities.
B. companies were expected to produce high returns for their investors.
C. large amounts of money were needed to buy expensive machinery and equipment.
D. a handful of private banks made loans to the most profitable new industries.21. As industrialization advanced, the two problems that began to plague entrepreneurs most were skyrocketing start-up costs and
A. excessive state regulatory interference.
B. an outmoded stock market system.
C. supply that was greater than demand.
D. a steep rise in workers’ wages.Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West
Chapter 171. The first successful steam-powered passenger railway in the history of the world opened in 1830 and connected
A. London and Manchester.
B. Manchester and Liverpool.
C. London and Edinburgh.
D. Liverpool and Edinburgh.2. In 1835, only five years after becoming an independent nation, what country opened the first continental railway built with public money raised by bonds?
D. Belgium3. Many European countries began to close the industrial gap with Great Britain from 1800 to 1840,
A. and these countries were generally able to close that gap by 1850 on their own initiative.
B. but even by 1850, continental Europe was almost twenty years behind British industrialization.
C. and through economic cooperation and sharing of technical exports, continental countries caught up with Britain’s industrial production.
D. but by 1850, they had failed to catch up to Great Britain because Britain had capitalized on its early industrialization and pulled even further ahead.4. Following the Peterloo massacre, the British government passed the Six Acts, which
A. sanctioned the seizure of all ships doing business with Napoleon’s Continental System.
B. lifted all remaining restrictions on Catholics’ freedom to hold public office.
C. put an official end to the enclosure movement.
D. forbade all large political meetings and restricted press freedom.5. After touring Manchester, England, in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that
A. conditions of factory workers were much better than previous observers had reported.
B. the rapid development of industry was spreading wealth throughout society.
C. industrialization produced both great misery and great wealth at the same time.
D. most workers were secretly engaged in trade union activity or even socialism.6. Which one of the following statements about the Industrial Revolution is false?
A. By the 1840s, a full 35 percent of the British labor force was employed in factories.
B. By 1850, the German states had nearly twice as many miles of railroad as the French.
C. During the 1840s, German coal and iron output were 6 or 7 percent of the British output.
D. In the 1840s, factories in England employed a mere 5 percent of workers.7. The Factory Act of 1833 in Great Britain
A. outlawed the employment of children under nine years of age in most textile mills and limited the number of days and hours older children could work.
B. made it illegal for all children under thirteen years of age to work rather than go to school.
C. outlawed the employment of children under thirteen years of age and limited the number of hours older children could work to eight hours.
D. instituted the first workplace safety inspection system in Europe.8. The disease that had the most devastating impact on cities in the first half of the nineteenth century was
A. yellow fever.
D. smallpox.9. The percentage of children enrolled in primary school in Prussia by 1835 was
A. 35 percent.
B. 75 percent.
C. 50 percent.
D. 90 percent.10. The reasoning behind the new British poor law in 1834, dubbed by its critics the “Starvation Act,” was that
A. providing food subsidies only to married women would reduce illegitimacy.
B. denying workhouse access to women under thirty years of age would force their families to care for them.
C. reducing the amount of food offered to urban workhouse residents would compel them to leave and return to the countryside.
D. the distress caused by the separation of family members from one another in workhouses would encourage the poor to move to areas of higher employment.11. Most of Charles Dickens’s novels, such as The Old Curiosity Shop (1841),
A. presented a plea for government legislation to control the poor and criminal classes.
B. reflected growing British nationalism.
C. drew attention to the miseries created by urbanization and industrialization.
D. encouraged the very rich to be politically active.12. Charles Dickens (1812–1870. wrote with passion and insight about working-class men and women because he himself
A. had worked to gather data on working-class living conditions for a series of reports to the British Parliament.
B. came from a working-class background, both parents having been employed in textile manufacturing.
C. had to work in a shoe polish factory after his father was imprisoned for debt.
D. was the son of a factory owner and had seen working conditions firsthand.13. The ideology that argued for the restoration of social and religious hierarchies was
D. utilitarianism.14. The Reform Bill of 1832 was a political landmark because
A. it gave representation to manufacturing cities in the north and set a precedent for the expansion of the percentage of eligible voters.
B. it granted a powerful voice to the numerically superior but materially poorer south.
C. universal suffrage was given to all men over the age of twenty-five.
D. women were granted the right to initiate divorce on grounds other than abandonment.15. The Economist was established in 1843 to promote the free-trade goals of the
A. Alliance Français.
B. Anti–Corn Law League.
C. British and Imperial Merchants Association.
D. Workers’ Alliance for Fair Prices.16. In the 1820s, socialists were more hostile to the status quo than were liberals because
A. socialists demanded that workers take over all the large factories without compensating former owners, while liberals said that owners should be reimbursed.
B. factory workers who supported the socialists far outnumbered the liberals, who were backed by the middle classes.
C. many former soldiers voted for socialists rather than liberals in elections because they identified the liberals with the regimes established by the Congress of Vienna.
D. socialists believed that society had to be completely reorganized, whereas liberals wanted to make changes without upsetting the basic structure of society.17. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865), one of the most influential of the early socialists, argued in What Is Property? that property
A. lacked Christian value.
B. belonged to the state.
C. created political power.
D. was theft.18. In terms of their impact, what set Marx and Engels apart from other socialist and communist intellectuals?
A. They tried to suppress trade unions because they thought unions would slow the advance of socialism.
B. The Communist Manifesto became the foundation document for communist revolutions around the world.
C. They were willing to work with liberals and other reformers in England and Germany.
D. They put religion, and particularly early Christianity, at the heart of their ideology.19. One example of Metternich’s campaign of repression within the states of the German Confederation was the institution of the
A. Enabling Law.
B. Act of Supremacy.
D. Karlsbad Decrees.20. Young Italy, an Italian nationalist group, was founded in 1831 by the exiled nationalist
A. Charles Albert.
B. Giuseppe Garibaldi.
C. Bartolomeo Pergami.
D. Giuseppe Mazzini.21. Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony reflects
A. the increasing use of traditional folk songs in the works of great composers.
B. Germany’s openness to French influences in the wake of the Congress of Vienna.
C. the way in which romanticism could politicize culture.
D. the growing influence of British art and culture over European artists.22. The Law of Indemnity, the Law of Sacrilege, the dissolution of the legislature, and the imposition of strict censorship were all undertaken by
A. Charles X.
B. Prince Klemens von Metternich.
C. Ferdinand VII.
D. Frederick William III.23. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking forced China to permit a continuation of the
A. slave trade.
B. work of Christian missionaries in China.
C. opium trade.
D. importation of British textiles