[Solved] Assignment 2110082


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Subject: History    / General History
QuestionQuestion: Demographic historians speak of a “population explosion” beginning in the seventeenth century, which they attribute to all of the following factors exceptA A rise in the birthrateB The disappearance of plague after 1720C Improved agricultural techniquesD Better weather conditionsQuestion: On June 20, 1789, the deputies to the National Assembly took the “Tennis Court Oath,” which declared thatA The Third Estate represented the interests of the entire French nationB Henceforth all voting would proceed on a one-man, one-vote basisC They would not disband until they had given France a binding constitutionD They would sweep away the last vestiges of feudal privilegeQuestion: Louis XIV’s successor, the Duke of Orléans (1674–1723), and regent to the future Louis XV, took immediate steps to shore up France’s crumbling finances byA Doubling the land tax, leading to widespread protests in rural areas throughout the kingdomB Canceling plans for further colonial expeditions in the New WorldC Founding a state bank to help the government service its debt, only to see it crash within a few months in the wake of a speculative bubbleD Imposing high tariffs on British agricultural imports, particularly wool and cotton textilesQuestion: By 1740, the European state with the highest proportion of men at arms – 1 of every 28 people – wasA Great BritainB RussiaC FranceD PrussiaQuestion: The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte began afterA His victories in the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797B A power vacuum occurred in the Directory, which needed to be filled by a vigorous leaderC The general success of the French wars after 1795D His soldiers’ discovery of the Rosetta Stone and other admirable artifacts from the ancient worldQuestion: The common link between Princeton University, the Hasidim, and John Wesley is that they allA Played an important role in shaping Thomas Jefferson’s political thinkingB Were persecuted by their respective governments for unorthodox thinkingC Flourished because of religious revivalism in the eighteenth centuryD Shared a bequest from the great Quaker philanthropist William PennQuestion: Although popular unrest and peasant uprisings marred much of the final quarter of the eighteenth century throughout Europe, the largest single rebellion by far was theA Pugachev rebellion in RussiaB Flour War in FranceC Silesian Weavers’ revolt in PrussiaD November Revolution in Poland-LithuaniaQuestion: Prussia had vastly increased the size and efficiency of its army, vaulting itself to great power status by the mid-eighteenth century, with theA Founding of military training schools for commissioned officersB Adoption of the year-round “citizen-soldier” systemC Institution of the “canton system”D Transformation of private militias of local lords into a mass armyQuestion: In 1774, Louis XVI restored the parlements, which had been abolished by his despised predecessor, Louis XV, because heA Wished to uphold the Enlightenment principles of fair and impartial justiceB Shared the banished judges’ desire to reform the tax system, making it both more equitable and more efficientC Succumbed to the demands of the aristocrats who viewed the parlements’ dissolution as an attack on privilegeD Hoped to diffuse rising popular resentment of tax increases and food shortages by reinstating a traditional outlet for the expression of popular grievancesQuestion: The Gordon riots, which devastated much of London in 1780, served as an example of the fact thatA Class issues still played a large role in ordinary people’s livesB Eighteenth-century governments, though aspiring to modern state management, were still far from their espoused goalsC Enlightenment ideas, such as individual rights and equality before the law, had finally taken hold of, and emboldened, working-class men and womenD Popular demonstrations did not always support reformsQuestion: Abbé Guillaume Raynal’s book, Philosophical and Political History of European Colonies and Commerce in the Two Indies (1770)A Proposed that France should grant independence to its overseas colonies as part of laissez-faire economicsB Revealed that secret negotiations between France, Prussia, the Dutch Republic, and Britain had led to a treaty to end the slave trade by the year 1800C Denounced the slave trade and European colonies that wiped out native populationsD Proved that Louis XV’s mistress had accepted huge bribes from India merchants in order to influence the king’s decisions about overseas tradeQuestion: European contact with China was limited becauseA European traders realized that the goods produced by China were not worth enough to make the long voyage economically feasibleB The Chinese distrusted the European “barbarians” and allowed them to trade only in the city of Guangzhou but nowhere elseC European traders discovered that they could purchase cheaper and better-quality silks and spices in IndiaD The Chinese banned all European traders once they learned that Westerners were also trading with China’s mortal enemy, JapanQuestion: Following the deaths of William and Mary and their successor, Anne (Mary’s sister), the English turned to which dynastic house for their next ruler, King George I (r. 1714–1727)?A The Austrian HabsburgsB The German House of HanoverC The French BourbonsD The Dutch House of OrangeQuestion: Voltaire’s campaign to restore Jean Calas’s reputation helped to bring about reforms, including the extension of civil rights to French Protestants as well asA The abolition of the burdensome church titheB The abolition of the legal use of tortureC French JewsD Access to legal representation for the poorQuestion: In Peter the Great’s quest to make Russia “great,” all of the following measures were taken exceptA The founding of laboratories, technical schools, and a Russian Academy of SciencesB The emancipation of the Russian peasantry from a state of virtual slavery with the prohibition of the serf systemC The translation into Russian of many western European classics and the introduction of Arabic numeralsD The publication of the first public newspaperQuestion: The Encyclopedia contributed to Enlightenment goals of social reform byA Promoting the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problemsB Funding from its sales the charitable schools established jointly by Diderot and VoltaireC Providing systematic plans for social reform that could be used by anyone who was able to readD Proving that a state-run system of education could turn out scholars capable of contributing to sophisticated intellectual projects like the EncyclopediaQuestion: After Voltaire’s Letters Concerning the English Nation was published in the early 1730s, the French government ordered his arrest because the bookA Suggested that Voltaire had acted as a spy for England during the War of Polish SuccessionB Argued that the Anglican church – and Protestantism in general – was more clearly based on scientific principles than was CatholicismC Praised the British government’s toleration and flexibility as a way of condemning the French governmentD Ridiculed Louis XV, his mistresses, and the entire French courtQuestion: In 1801, Napoleon signed a concordat with the pope to end church–state conflict becauseA The French bishops agreed to support his plan to become emperorB He believed that religion was a powerful component for maintaining social orderC His religious convictions had been violated by the anti-Catholicism of the RevolutionD The pope agreed to persuade the Italians to become a French satellite kingdomQuestion: What was the profession that Napoleon described as “good for nothing under any government”?A PainterB MusicianC WriterD AttorneyQuestion: Children of Spanish men and Indian women were calledA MestizosB CaballerosC QuilombosD OroonokosQuestion: In England, Eliza Haywood was one of a number of eighteenth-century women who showed that they could succeed asA Proprietors of coffeehousesB Merchants selling tea and coffeeC Newspaper reportersD Authors of novelsQuestion: Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory of “the social contract” posed a direct threat to the perceived legitimacy of eighteenth-century governments because he based it uponA GodB TraditionC Social-scientific analysisD Human natureQuestion: Why was it so significant that the British government decided to allow the licensing system to lapse in 1695?A Catholics no longer had to register with the government, so this was a significant step toward religious tolerationB Ending prepublication censorship of printed books and other materials encouraged expansion of literate societyC Restrictions on coffeehouses and taverns that had kept them from renting out their premises for any kind of political meetings were lifted, thus promoting political debateD Merchants and traders no longer had to register their corporations with the government, creating a dramatic expansion in the stock marketQuestion: The French Revolution came to an end in 1799 when Napoleon BonaparteA Took power after a coup, ousted the Directory, and established himself as First ConsulB Seized power and crowned himself French emperorC Was elected consul through a national plebisciteD Enacted the Civil Code, which made him head of stateQuestion: In the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Empress Maria Theresa managed to hold on to her throne and most of her territory byA Agreeing to Frederick II’s demand that Poland-Lithuania be divided up between Austria, Prussia, and RussiaB Forming an alliance with France against Prussia and her ally Great BritainC Arranging for the assassination of the opposing claimant, Francis I, who had declared the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 invalid, thereby rescinding the right of women to inherit the crownD Conceding Silesia to Prussia, thereby disrupting the Franco-Prussian allianceQuestion: Parisian women marched to the palace at Versailles on October 5, 1789, in order toA Request the king’s help in getting more grain for ParisB Secure the king’s promise for a democratically elected National ConventionC Demonstrate their loyalty to the royal family and their distrust of reformersD Beg the king to return to Paris and personally restore orderQuestion: Colonial farmers shipped to Europe large quantities of all of the following products exceptA CoffeeB WoolC SugarD TobaccoQuestion: In what way did the Civil Code betray the principles of the Enlightenment and the Revolution?A It reversed gains made in women’s and children’s rights to increase men’s powerB It failed to guarantee toleration for all religious groupsC It reinstituted restrictions on the commoners’ professional mobilityD It failed to provide safeguards for private property and familial integrityQuestion: Republican festivals sponsored by the Committee of Public Safety were meant toA Raise funds for the war effort by inspiring people to give money to save the republicB Show other Europeans that stories about the Terror in France were greatly exaggeratedC Destroy the mystique of the monarchy and make the republic sacred through symbolismD Gain the support of the army with holidays celebrating them as “the heroes of the republic”Question: Although the Diplomatic Revolution in 1756 resulted in major changes in European alliances, the two major rivalries remained unchanged; these wereA France versus Britain and Austria versus RussiaB France versus Austria and Britain versus PrussiaC France versus Russia and Austria versus PrussiaD France versus Britain and Austria versus PrussiaQuestion: The revolutionaries’ decision to take over the education of boys and girls failed becauseA They removed the Catholic clergy who had been teachers but did not have other teachers ready to take their placeB Political indoctrination took the place of subjects such as math, grammar, and historyC Only families able to pay school fees could send their children to state schoolsD Education was restricted to the children of proven revolutionaries and veteransQuestion: In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile, which offered his theories onA DemocracyB The Catholic ChurchC EducationD The militaryQuestion: Historians emphasize that what came to be called Britain’s “agricultural revolution” in the 1700s cannot be attributed toA The selective breeding of animalsB The planting of fodder crops, such as clover and turnips, instead of field rotationC The invention of new machineryD An increase in the amount of land under cultivationQuestion: The birth and growth of a European consumer society succeeded despiteA Attacks by writers and intellectuals who claimed that humans were becoming gluttonous animalsB Efforts by monarchs to stop the flood of imports in order to protect local producersC Wildly fluctuating prices for new consumer products and exotic foodsD The reluctance of producers in colonial lands to sell commodities at enforced low pricesQuestion: In the Act of Union of 1707, Scottish Protestant leaders abolished the Scottish Parliament and instead agreed to obey the Parliament of Great BritainA Because they feared JacobitismB Following Queen Anne’s successful suppression of a Scottish-Catholic revoltC Thus making official the shift in power that had occurred long beforeD When Queen Anne promised them sinecures and seats as peers in the House of LordsQuestion: Napoleon’s founding of the Legion of Honor in 1802 was part of his campaign toA Claim the legacy of ancient Rome by establishing an elite based on virtue and faithfulnessB Build a permanent elite fighting force to increase French colonial possessions abroadC Control French culture by granting liberal pensions to those artists and writers of whom he approvedD Establish a social hierarchy based on meritQuestion: How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?A The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrestB Germany’s intellectuals, such as Immanuel Kant, were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterpartsC French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholarsD French philosophes intended their work for the masses but because the Prussian state limited education only to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the EnlightenmentQuestion: The spread of Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe were also reflected in music withA The founding of music academies and scholarships, which for the first time enabled the young sons of the middle classes to pursue musical careersB The transition from complex polyphony to an emphasis on more popularly accessible melodyC The establishment of open-air concerts for paying audiences, which freed musicians from financial concerns and thus from dependency on royal patronageD A rejection of baroque and all older styles of musical composition in favor of continuous innovation and experimentationQuestion: The eighteenth century witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production of books, pamphlets, and newspapers, along with a concomitant rise in literacy rates that was most evident inA Spain and PortugalB Scandinavia, Scotland, and parts of SwitzerlandC The German states of the Holy Roman EmpireD FranceQuestion: Writers of the Enlightenment called themselvesA PensésB PhilosophesC BibliophilesD IncroyablesQuestion: Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, anonymously published in the Dutch Republic in 1721, is an example ofA Books that responded to the new European interest in exotic plants and flowersB Travel accounts that took an intolerant view of non-Christian countriesC Political critiques of European politics and society that were disguised as travel accountsD The way letters written on a foreign journey could be turned into a best-sellerQuestion: When the Estates General met in 1789, their first decision concerned theA Bank of FranceB Role of the kingC Food shortageD Voting procedureQuestion: In response to a massive uprising of the long-oppressed serfs of Russia, Empress Catherine “the Great” (r. 1762–1796)A Increased the nobles’ power over themB Promulgated laws easing the legal restrictions that had prevented serfs from leaving family plots, earning independent livelihoods, and marrying without their feudal lords’ permissionC Declared war on Prussia as a way of diverting attention away from social problems at homeD Repealed the tax increases of the mid-century and shifted some of the tax burden to the heretofore tax-exempt nobilityQuestion: Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction wasA Appointing a chief minister who managed court affairs, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policyB Making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and tradeC Undertaking extensive colonization efforts in Africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe’s wealthD Founding the new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officialsQuestion: The dispute in the French National Assembly between the Girondins and the Mountagnards was overA Whether the upper ranks of the aristocracy should be exiled along with the king, Louis XVI (the Mountagnards’ position), or the king alone should be exiled (the Girondins’ position)B Whether the entire royal family should be exiled (the Mountagnards’ position) or executed (the Girondins’ position)C Whether the king, Louis XVI, was guilty of treason (the Girondins’ position) or simply shirking his responsibilities (the Mountagnards’ position)D Whether the king, Louis XVI, should be executed for treason (the Mountagnards’ position) or given clemency or exile (the Girondins’ position)Question: Napoleon’s feared minister of police, who made liberal use of his authority to spy on and arbitrarily imprison all political dissidents, wasA Louis-Léopold BoillyB Alexandre BerthierC Joseph FouchéD Eugène de BeauharnaisQuestion: Which of the following measures was not part of Napoleon’s “new paternalism”?A Children up to the age of sixteen could be imprisoned for refusing to follow their father’s commandsB Employers were prohibited from deducting fines and arbitrarily reducing employee wagesC Destitute women could more easily abandon their children anonymously to government foundling hospitalsD The government prohibited all workers’ organizationsQuestion: By the eighteenth century, many Europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly onA Religious grounds, as many asserted that African “heathens” deserved to be enslavedB Africans’ purported mental inferiorityC Historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a “natural” practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empireD The claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying, or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoplesQuestion: The “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety wasA Jacques-Louis DavidB Maximilien RobespierreC Georges-Jacques DantonD Jean-Paul MaratQuestion: The slave trade had a lasting impact on Europe because itA Encouraged many more Europeans to go to the colonies to find workB Put many European farmers out of business by undercutting their pricesC Permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary peopleD Introduced African products and goods into Europe for the first time

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