[Solved] Assignment 2110083

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Subject: History    / General History
QuestionQuestion: The post–World War II Nuremberg trials concerned war crimes committed byA Nazi leadersB Japanese generalsC Collaborators in all former Nazi-occupied European countriesD All Nazi, Japanese, and Italian war criminalsQuestion: Two events in 1949 that helped precipitate a nationwide Communist witch hunt championed by Senator Joseph McCarthy wereA The Soviets’ explosion of an atomic bomb and the Communist revolution in ChinaB The downing of an American U-2 aircraft and the arrest of its pilot on espionage chargesC The invasion of South Korea by Communist North Korean forces and the murder of the South Korean presidentD The defection of top U.S. officials to Moscow and the conviction and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for providing classified information to the Soviet UnionQuestion: In 1956, an uprising in Hungary finally precipitated an invasion by Soviet forces whenA Hungarian leader Imre Nagy announced that Hungary would leave the Warsaw PactB Its leaders expanded their initial purely economic demands to include the establishment of a multiparty systemC The Hungarian army ignored orders from Moscow and refused to repress the rebellionD Marshall Zhukov overthrew Communist premier Imre NagyQuestion: In 1949, the Soviet Union created regional economic organizations in order toA Increase Russian production so as to stay ahead of production in eastern EuropeB Place high tariffs on goods coming into the USSR from eastern EuropeC Prevent western European goods from swamping socialist markets in eastern Europe and the USSRD Facilitate economic cooperation between the Soviet Union and its satellite countriesQuestion: In 1949, the Soviet Union created regional economic organizations of hundreds of SA leaders and other personal enemies, is known as theA AnschlussB Final SolutionC Night of the Long KnivesD VolkgemeinschaftQuestion: In his 1931 address to the world on social issues, Pope Pius XIA Condemned the rising tide of ethnic tensions in eastern Europe as well as political extremism in countries such as Italy, Germany, and RussiaB Blamed the decline in European fertility rates on the modern neglect of the family, the emancipation of women, and the spread of contraceptionC Condemned the failure of modern societies to provide their citizens with the moral and material conditions necessary for a decent lifeD Called upon Europeans to return to their religious faith in this time of economic distress and to focus on family, thrift, and hard workQuestion: Military leaders Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, who gained near dictatorial powers over Germany during the war, gained hero status when theyA Halted the French advance at VerdunB Beat the American expeditionary force during the AEF’s landing in BelgiumC Stopped the massive Russian army on the eastern frontD Called for a “war to the death,” which boosted German moraleQuestion: When, in 1948, the Soviets blockaded Berlin, situated more than 100 miles into the Soviet zone, the United States responded byA Threatening to rescind the Allied agreement concluded at Yalta over the Soviet’s role in Korea and ManchuriaB Cutting off negotiations with Stalin over the Soviet Union’s possible inclusion in the Marshall PlanC Expelling Soviet diplomats from Washington, D.C., and mobilizing U.S. forces in the American zone of occupation in western GermanyD Staging Operation Vittles, an ongoing airlift that supplied the residents of Berlin with food and fuel into the spring of 1949Question: Hitler tried to justify his 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union by calling that country theA “Great Slavic devil”B “Final land for Lebensraum”C “Stooge for Britain and France”D “Center of judeo-bolshevism”Question: Yuri Gagarin caused great concern in the United States. What did he do to become famous?A He threatened to “bury” the West during a visit to the United StatesB He was the first man to orbit the earth, thus demonstrating the Soviet Union’s advances in space technologyC He was the chief scientist on the Russian nuclear weapons programD He was the chief undercover agent for the Soviet Union based in Washington, D.CQuestion: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by Germany and Russia early in 1918A Required Germany and Russia to cede territory for the reconstruction of PolandB Withdrew Russia from the war in exchange for German withdrawal from the UkraineC Pulled Russia out of the war and changed the balance of the conflictD Led to the creation of the Third International and its aggressive Marxist agendaQuestion: Who said “The receptivity of the great masses is very limited; their intelligence is small”?A Joseph GoebbelsB Heinrich HimmlerC Adolf HitlerD Friedrich EbertQuestion: Of all the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, the one that generated the most outrage in Germany was theA “War guilt” clauseB Demand for 132 billion gold marks in reparationsC French occupation of the western bank of the Rhine and the coal-rich Saar basinD Loss of Alsace and LorraineQuestion: Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) and his peasant guerrilla forces finally forced the French to withdraw from Indochina in 1954 after the savage battle ofA SaigonB Dien Bien PhuC Phnom PenhD Nam DinhQuestion: An antifascist coalition government like the French Popular Front would have been impossible in democratic countries before 1936 becauseA Stalin had just reversed his ban on international Communists participating in coalition governmentsB That year saw the defeat of the antifascist Republicans in SpainC That was the year that the League of Nations agreed to such multiparty coalitionsD No one recognized that fascism was a growing danger until that year, when Hitler unveiled his new army and air forceQuestion: In the face of total military defeat by late 1944, Hitler continued to beseech the Germans to fight on, believing thatA The Germans, failing to secure victory, deserved to dieB They could at least wrest a partial victory from the Allies by holding on to territory in the EastC Such resolve would intimidate the Allies into agreeing to a less punishing peaceD Divine providence was on the German side and that a turnaround was still possibleQuestion: The 1935 legislation that deprived German Jews of citizenship, defined Jewishness according to ancestry rather than belief, and prohibited marriages between Jews and other Germans was called theA Aryan Protection ActB Munich DecreesC Nuremberg LawsD Anti-Semitic Defensive LawsQuestion: Following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in Serbia on July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum to Serbia with certain demands; Serbia accepted all of the many terms of the Austrian ultimatum except one, namelyA The presence of Austrian officials in the assassination investigationB Serbian government condemnation of anti-Austrian propagandaC A public condemnation of possible Serbian military involvement in the assassinationD A firm Serbian promise of noninterference in BosniaQuestion: Upon the outbreak of World War I, the world quickly devolved into two armed and allied camps: the “Central Powers” consisting ofA Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Great Britain, Turkey, and ItalyB Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the “Allies,” consisting of France, Great Britain, Russia, and JapanC Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Poland, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United StatesD Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, and Spain, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Belgium, Great Britain, and RussiaQuestion: The U.S. stock market crash led to a global economic depression becauseA The United States was unable to pay its war debts to European nationsB American lenders called in their international debts, which undermined banks and industry abroadC American banks had borrowed so heavily from foreign lenders that the crash destabilized foreign currenciesD Most foreign companies traded their stock on the U.S. marketQuestion: The inflation in 1923 that made German currency worthless occurred when the German government printed trillions of marksA In an effort to pay the staggering reparations imposed by the Dawes PlanB To cause a financial crisis that would convince the Allies of Germany’s inability to pay its reparationsC To ensure that workers were paid and to keep up with reparations payments, even though the government knew the currency was valuelessD In the mistaken belief that it could control the dip in currency values and bring on an improvement in the German balance of tradeQuestion: When it was coined, the term second world referred toA Western EuropeB The United States, Canada, and Great BritainC The Soviet Union and its socialist alliesD The capitalist nations onlyQuestion: Following the official end of hostilities on November 11, 1918, the world experienced another devastating blow with the death of some twenty million more people as a result ofA TyphusB FamineC InfluenzaD Colonial uprisingsQuestion: The demands of total war in the Soviet Union had encouraged independent initiative and relaxed Communist oversight, a development that StalinA Encouraged in his five-year plan of 1946 through a series of decentralization measures designed to increase production levelsB Praised as proof of worker flexibility and self-empowerment, two linchpins of socialismC Ruthlessly reversed through increased repression, increased production goals, and a still more radical collectivization of agricultureD Reversed with the gradual adoption of the command and control procedures regularly exercised in the ever-growing Soviet armyQuestion: Great Britain refused to join the European Economic Community (EEC) established by Italy, France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in 1957 becauseA The other countries refused to base the EEC’s administration in LondonB It did not want to join in the establishment of a single European-wide currencyC It opposed German membershipD It resisted becoming “just another European country”Question: In 1929, Joseph Stalin intended to end the Soviet Union’s backwardness with an ambitious industrial expansion program called theA New Economic PolicyB Struggle for SocialismC Five-Year PlanD Soviet PlanQuestion: The single most significant aspect of German military policy in terms of its provocative effect on the United States and subsequent U.S. involvement in the war wasA Unrestricted submarine warfareB The Germans’ purported use of mass executions in BelgiumC Germany’s decision to wage a two-front warD The forced removal of entire European populations to labor camps in GermanyQuestion: Following the end of World War II, the British and Americans were alarmed whenA Communist insurgents threatened the British-installed, right-wing monarchy in GreeceB Ethnic rivalry in the Balkans left the Serbian Communists as the strongest party in the regionC The French Communist Party experienced phenomenal growthD The German Federal Republic failed to outlaw the German Communist PartyQuestion: One of the lasting effects of World War I was thatA International negotiations and peace conferences were abandoned because they had not prevented the warB Certain military terms and soldiers’ slang entered common usage, such as lousy, trench coat, rank and file, and basket caseC The horror of mechanized war caused many munitions manufacturers to question innovation in arms makingD The 1920s were a gloomy decade of retrenchment and cultural stagnationQuestion: One development of the 1920s that made it easier for ordinary people to obtain new consumer goods such as refrigerators, washing machines, and stoves wasA Electrical appliance warehouses that sold directly to the consumer at dramatically reduced pricesB The introduction of lower-priced manufactured goods from the colonies, produced by low-paid native laborC Installment buying, which allowed families to pay for goods over timeD Government-sponsored loans that were intended to improve veterans’ standard of livingQuestion: In the spring of 1920, a military coup led by members of right-wing paramilitary units (Freikorps) was put down whenA The new head of the German High Command sent demobilized military units to retake BerlinB President Friedrich Ebert called a general strike, which brought Berlin to a standstill and revealed the coup to have no popular supportC The communist Spartacists ambushed coup leaders, killing the conspirators at their headquarters in BerlinD The Freikorps clashed with their rivals, the National Socialist “brownshirts,” in a pitched battle in the streets of BerlinQuestion: Stalin’s use of terror tactics to assure fulfillment of the production quotas in the 1930sA Was in keeping with the tactics used by Lenin to inspire compliance with his New Economic Policy in the 1920sB Led to uprisings among factory workers and the imprisonment of so many workers that production dropped some 20 percent by 1938C Led to the emigration of up to half a million skilled and semiskilled workers until Stalin effectively sealed the borders in 1938D Made lying, such as the falsification of production figures, and corruption permanent features of the Soviet Communist systemQuestion: In 1964, after a protracted war, Kenya won formal independence when nationalist fighters from the Kikuyu ethnic group, known as Mau Mau,A Repulsed French forces at MombasaB Overran the capital city of Nairobi, forcing the British to agree to an independence agreement in order to avoid further bloodshedC Defeated the British, but only after the slaughter of some tens of thousands of KikuyusD Resisted British attempts to retain control by promoting a countrywide strike of state-run industriesQuestion: The concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau shows that the camps were part of a larger German war strategy because, in addition to being a place of mass murderA It served as a technical testing ground for new German weaponsB It was built to look like a munitions factory in the hopes that British and American bombers would target itC It was also used as a labor campD It was used in propaganda films to prove to Germans that the prisoners there were lower than animalsQuestion: The Japanese attempted to portray their aggression in Asia asA Restoring ancient religious beliefs and practices, especially ConfucianismB Freeing the region from Western imperialismC Establishing democratic governments in place of the ancient monarchies of AsiaD A Communist-style state run from a central government located in JapanQuestion: When Stalin called for the “liquidation of the kulaks,” he was referring toA Prosperous peasants and anyone who opposed his plans to end independent farmingB Coal miners from Siberia who went on strike just before the harsh winter of 1929C The remaining Russian bankers who resisted his plans to nationalize their holdingsD Criminals who were making a profit through buying and selling black market goodsQuestion: In 1936, both France and Britain led Mussolini to believe that they would do little to stop fascist aggression when theyA Thwarted an attempt by some members of the League of Nations to impose a rigorous embargo on Italy following Mussolini’s invasion of EthiopiaB Forcibly repatriated Italian refugees fleeing arrest by Mussolini’s fascist police forceC Agreed to lower import duties on Italian goods despite Italy’s seizure of Abyssinia two weeks earlierD Failed to protest or otherwise respond to the virulent rhetoric that accompanied Mussolini’s declaration of a Rome–Berlin axisQuestion: By 1917, efforts to put an end to the war mushroomed across the European continent, including all of the following exceptA Austria-Hungary’s secret request to the Allies for a negotiated peace settlementB The German Reichstag’s call for a “peace of understanding and permanent reconciliation of peoples”C A rebellion in Vienna led by students who temporarily took hold of the Austrian parliamentD A widespread mutiny of French soldiersQuestion: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, or COMECON,A Stunted eastern European development by forcing satellite nations to buy exorbitantly priced Soviet-made goods and to sell their own goods to the USSR at a lossB Divided the Soviet eastern European sphere of influence into an agrarian zone in the south and an industrial zone to the northC Propped up many eastern European economies with Soviet-funded subsidies, giving these nations time to produce and sell on their ownD Led to an energizing exchange of goods, ideas, and peoples throughout eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and, thus, to a liberalization of Communist political controlsQuestion: In April 1917, the Germans moved to destabilize Russia byA Sending agents to blow up railway tracks, provoking a tsarist crackdown on dissidentsB Using submarines to cut off the Russian supply lines in the Baltic SeaC Distributing leaflets and forged documents in Russia that purportedly proved that Nicholas II planned to reimpose serfdomD Providing safe rail transportation back to Russia for Lenin and other BolsheviksQuestion: The relentless German bombing of British cities in the summer of 1940 is known asA The battle of BritainB The Summer of BombsC The Great Air WarD The battle of the AtlanticQuestion: In the 1930s, although the views of politicians varied, one concern shared by all was thatA Greater popular participation in politics would secure political stability by heightening the sense of shared responsibilityB Pump priming and government-sponsored job programs offered surefire solutions to effect an economic turnaroundC Falling birthrates meant a serious weakening or imminent collapse of individual nations, if not European society altogetherD An expansion of overseas markets would generate impressive revenues and lead to future prosperityQuestion: World War I was called a “total war” becauseA All of the countries in Europe, their colonial possessions, and the United States were involved in itB The entire industrial capacity of the state, as well as all civilian and military personnel, was mobilized to fight the warC The new weapons of war, including poison gas and machine guns, killed virtually everyone in their pathD Armies on both sides used a scorched-earth tactic to destroy all crops, livestock, buildings, and infrastructure in their pathsQuestion: The Nuremberg trials against Nazi war criminals, held in the fall of 1945, led to either execution or long-term prison terms for someA 300 senior Nazi SS, Gestapo, and military officersB 24 senior Nazi officialsC 1,000 Nazi officials and concentration camp administratorsD 100 defendants, including 35 Nazi judgesQuestion: Total war had a significant impact on gender roles: women on the home frontA Became shockingly liberated and promiscuous in the wake of their newfound Freedom from male chaperones, guardians, and even husbandsB Were dedicated pacifists who were largely out of sympathy with government and military menC Became convinced of veterans’ need for a secure family life and retreated from feminism and women’s social gains to cultivate a nurturing domesticityD Were more independent, labored at formerly male occupations, changed to practical hairstyles and clothing, and took advantage of greater political and social freedomsQuestion: In the late 1930s, who helped convince the Swedish government of the importance of providing financial assistance, medical benefits, and child-care services to mothers and families?A Frederika BremerB Alva MyrdalC Selma LagerlofD Viveca TeuberQuestion: Which of the following was not a goal of the European Economic Community (the Common Market) in the 1950s?A Reducing tariffs among its membersB Reducing nationalist rivalriesC Developing common trade policies for all membersD Integrating British Commonwealth trade into European marketsQuestion: The Dawes Plan (1924), the Young Plan (1929), and the Treaty of Locarno (1925) tried toA Create a balance of power by limiting the number of battleships each country could buildB Correct some of the more punitive provisions of the Treaty of VersaillesC Avoid an economic depression by establishing a single currency standardD Strengthen the League of Nations with a set of goals for each nation to achieveQuestion: Among all the combatants the world over, the country that suffered the greatest number of casualties, with some 7.5 million dead during World War I, wasA GermanyB FranceC Great BritainD RussiaQuestion: In 1949, German centrist politicians founded the new state of the German Federal Republic, whose first chancellor was the Catholic politicianA Willy BrandtB Helmut SchmidtC Konrad AdenauerD Ludwig Erhard

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