Management : An experimenter has some degree of control over theSubject: Business / Management
10. An experimenter has some degree of control over the:a. independent variable.b. correlative variable.c. history effect.d. All of the above, if the experiment is conducted properly.11. If a researcher wants to answer the question: “Will adult women (ages 25-49) use more of a cooking oil when it is in a full container or a half-empty one?”, the best type of study to use would be a(n):a. descriptive study.b. experimental study.c. exploratory study.d. focus group study.12. In a human resources training study, “manager turnover” is most likely to be a(n):a. independent variable.b. dependent variable.c. control group variable.d. random assignment variable.13. In terms of internal validity, a large layoff of middle-level managers during a research study would have what type of extraneous variable?a. Historyb. Maturationc. Testingd. Instrumentation14. The after-only with control group design eliminates the problems of:a. selection bias and mortality.b. mortality and testing.c. testing and instrumentation.d. selection bias and testing.15. An experiment that investigates long-term structural change is:a. the static group design.b. the Solomon four-group design.c. a time series design.d. a Latin square design.16. An experimental researcher manipulated advertising (high versus low) and price (high versus low). When advertising was high and price was high there was not much of an influence on sales volume, but when advertising was high and price was low, there was a great influence on sales volume. This indicates:a. a main effect for advertising.b. a main effect for price.c. an interaction effect.d. a factorial effect.17. Employee turnover during a research study has the most effect on which of the following factors which affect the internal validity of the study?a. Mortalityb. Testingc. Instrumentationd. History18. If the researcher is attempting to answer the question: “Will the test market results in Kansas City hold true in California?”, the researcher is most concerned with:a. the history effect.b. internal validity.c. external validity.d. mortality.19. When a prior measurement affects a test unit’s response to the experiment, we might say that __________ occurs.a. testing effectb. sensitizingc. prioritizingd. maturation20. The characteristic that differentiates true experimental design from quasi-experimental design is:a. the use of a control group.b. random assignment of subjects to experimental groups.c. multiple observations.d. all of the above.21. From the standpoint of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the term “labor force” is a(n):a. rule of measurement.b. concept.c. interval scale.d. invalid attribute.22. A company’s Human Resources department distributes a survey which asks employees to rate their current benefits as “excellent,” “good,” “fair,” or “poor.” This is an example of a(n):a. nominal scale.b. interval scale.c. ratio scale.d. ordinal scale.23. When a supervisor is asked to rate each of his subordinates on a 5-point scale where 1 (one) means that the worker is unsatisfactory and 5 means that the worker is exceptional, this is an example of which type of scale?a. Ratio scaleb. Interval scalec. Ordinal scaled. Nominal scale24. “Dollars” represents which type of scale?a. Nominal scaleb. Ordinal scalec. Interval scaled. Ratio scale25. Which of the following statements about an interval scale is FALSE?a. It has the properties of an ordinal scale.b. It uniquely classifies by providing numbers that serve as labels for identification.c. It has an absolute zero point.d. It has the properties of a nominal scale.26. The statement “our brand has a 20 percent market share,” implies __________ data.a. nominalb. ordinalc. intervald. ratio27. Calculating the mean is permissable for _____ or _____ scales, but is not permissable for _____ or _____ scales.a. interval; nominal; ordinal; ratiob. ratio; interval; nominal; ordinalc. ordinal; interval; ratio; nominald. nominal; interval; ratio; ordinal28. When several experts say that a measure provides adequate coverage of the concept, a measure has ___________ validity.a. concurrentb. contentc. criteriond. apparent29. Which of the following is NOT a component of an attitude?a. Affectiveb. Cognitivec. Behaviorald. Semantic30. In constructing a semantic differential scalea. midpoint descriptors are used.b. bipolar adjectives are used.c. (n-l)/2 comparisons must be made.d. None of the above are used.31. What type of scale is being used in the following item?Please tell us how satisfied you are with your purchase of your Ford Escort.Very VerySatisfied 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dissatisfieda. Likertb. Semantic differentialc. Comparative ratingd. Numerical32. What type of scale is being used when a company asks its managers to distribute their benefits so that they add up to 50 points using the following scale____ Dental plan____ Retirement plan____ Health care plan____ Child care plana. Likert scaleb. Semantic differential scalec. Constant sum scaled. Ranking scale33. What type of question is the following:Name four brands of automobile tires that you would consider purchasing if you were in the market for a new set of tires for your car?a. Leading questionb. Loaded questionc. Fixed-alternative questiond. Open-ended question34. When respondents believe that past events happened more recently than they actually did, this is called __________.a. squishing.b. funnel technique.c. frequency determination.d. telescoping.35. The formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given action, activity, or program has achieved its objectives is called:a. basic research.b. evaluation research.c. scientific research.d. applied research.36. The Pure/Basic research is research that:a. addresses simple issues that are basic and research is not really needed.b. attempts to expand the limits of knowledge for a discipline.c. is conducted to make a decision about a specific real life problem.d. all of the above37. Which statement best describes the nature of basic research?a. Basic research requires the use of experimentation.b. The primary purpose of basic research is to facilitate the managerial decision process.c. Basic research is conducted to verify the acceptability of a given theory.d. Because basic research is exploratory, it does not require the use of scientific methodology.38. When Colgate-Palmolive Co. tracks the sale of its health and beauty aids in discount stores by utilizing the information provided by scanners at the checkout lines, this is an example of which type of research?a. Basic researchb. Performance-monitoring researchc. Pure researchd. Intuitive research39. The term __________ research describes research that regularly, perhaps routinely, provides feedback for evaluation and control of business activity.a. decision supportb. performance-monitoringc. causald. analysis40. When Ford Motor Co. brings together representatives from R&D, Finance, Marketing, Sales, and Marketing Research to work together on the design of a new type of automobile, this is an example of the use ofa. basic research.b. pure research.c. cross-functional teams.d. evaluation research.41. Which type of research study is attempting to answer the question “Would members of this target market be interested in purchasing this new type of product?”a.Descriptive researchb.Causal researchc.Exploratory researchd.Definitive research42. If we want to clarify the nature of problems, we would conduct __________ research.a. clarificationb. exploratoryc. descriptived. causal43. The text presents the following quote from the book Zen and the Art of MotorcycleMaintenance: “In Part One of formal scientific method…the main skill is in stating absolutely no more than you are positive you know.” This describes which step in applying the scientific method?a .Analysis and evaluation of datab. Providing explanation and stating new problems raised by the researchc. Assessment of relevant existing knowledged. Designing the research to test the hypothesis44. When comparing the typical door-to-door personal interview with the typical mail survey, personal interviews are more appropriately described by each of these characteristics EXCEPTa. greater speed of data collection.b. higher respondent cooperation.c. higher possibility of respondent misunderstanding.d. greater versatility of question format (questioning).45. Which of the following statements conceding the participation rate for personal interviews, compared to mail surveys, is FALSE?a. The presence of an interviewer generally increases the percentage of people willing to respond.b. Hispanics, regardless of education, frequently prefer oral to written communication.c. Certain groups, such as older, retired persons, are often over-represented.d. Type of residential unit, such as high security apartment buildings, usually has a positive impact on response rates.46. If 400 people are mailed a questionnaire and 120 of them return it to the researcher, this survey is said to have a response rate ofa. 120.b. 3.33.c. 30 percent.d. 400.47. Which of the following survey methods typically ranks HIGHEST on standardization of questioning?a. Personalb. Mailc. Telephoned. All rank about the same48. The type of survey method which typically ranks highest on response rates isa. Personal.b. Mail.c. Telephone.d. All rank about the same.49. If 800 people are mailed a survey and 230 of them return it to the researcher, the survey is said to have a response rate ofa. 230.b. 800.c. 3.48.d. 28.8 percent.50. A researcher who is investigating consumer reactions to a videotape of a proposed television commercial is most likely to usea. telephone interviews.b. door-to-door interviews.c. mall intercept interviews.d. self-administered questionnaires.51. When comparing telephone interviews to door-to-door personal interviews, telephone interviews are more appropriately described by each of these characteristics EXCEPTa. faster speed of data collection.b. greater geographic flexibility.c. lower possibility for respondent misunderstanding.d. easier call-back or follow-up.52. Which of the following should be included in the cover letter of a mail survey?a. Assurance of confidentiality of the datab. An incentive for participation in the studyc. Assurance that the survey will only take a few minutesd. A description of how the individual was selected to participate53. The following question:Should Lord & Taylor continue its excellent gift wrapping program?____Yes ____ Noa. is a double-barreled question.b. has a built-in assumption.c. is a counterbiasing statement.d. all of the above.54. A questionnaire is said to be __________ if no unnecessary information is collected and if the information needed to solve the business problem is obtained.a. completeb. relevantc. finishedd. correct55. What type of question is the following?Did you make any local or long-distance calls from your home last week?____ yes ____ noa. Double-barreledb. Leadingc. Loadedd. Funnel56. Open-ended questions:a. make good introductory questions during an interview.b. limit the range of choices available to respondents.c. increase interviewer bias.d. require little respondent effort.57. What type of question is the following?Do you agree or disagree with this statement: “The recession is caused by inflation and unemployment.”a. Leadingb. Misleadingc. Double-barreledd. Checklist58. When using the Internet, if you need to click beside either a “Yes” or a “No” response to fill in the circle that is next to one of these choices to indicate your answer to the question, this type of prompt is called:a. a split-ballot prompt.b. a radio button.c. a check list button.d. a complex choice button.59. In developing a questionnaire, which of the following is NOT a useful guideline:a. avoid loaded questions.b. be as general as possible.c. avoid double-barreled items.d. use simple, conversational language.60. Quota samplinga. involves taking a stratified sample in which the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative population size of that stratum.b. ensures that certain characteristics of a population sample will be represented to the exact extent that the researcher desires.c. obtains units or people who are most conveniently available.d. selects an initial starting point by a random process, and then selects every nth number on the list.61. Secondary sampling units area. units selected during preliminary stages of testing.b. units that are weeded out due to random sampling error.c. units selected in the second stage of sampling.d. samples that consist of inanimate objects only, rather than people.62. A disproportional stratified samplea. involves taking a stratified sample in which the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative population size of that stratum.b. is a stratified sample in which the sample size for each stratum is allocated according to analytical considerations.c. obtains units or people who are most conveniently available.d. selects an initial starting point by a random process, and then selects every nth number on the list.63. If we are experimenting with different forms of advertising copy appeals, thedependent variable might be defined as:a. a measure of advertising awareness.b. recall.c. change in brand preference.d. any of these.64. If, during the course of an experiment, subjects change in some way that will have an impact on the experimental results, the effect is referred to as:a. history.b. maturation.c. selection.d. mortality.65. In a test marketing study of a new type of instant tea, sales volume (as measured by dollar sales) is most likely to be a(n):a. Random variable.b. Independent variable.c. Control variable.d. Dependent variable.66. In a test marketing study, initial trial purchase is most likely to be a(n):a. independent variable.b. control variable.c. dependent variable.d. external variable67. If the interviewers are changed during a research study, this would have what type of effect on the extraneous variables?a. Testing effectb. History effectc. Selection biasd. Instrumentation68. An automobile dealer, after a very cold winter, found himself with a very largeinventory. He experimented with offering a free trip to Chicago (X) with every car sold. He recorded sales (O) after the promotion. This is an example of:a. an after only design.b. before-after design.c. control design.d. a completely randomized design.69. A researcher uses a cartoon drawing to which the respondent suggests dialogue that the cartoon characters might speak. This is an example of:a. a focus group.b. sentence completion.c. thematic apperception testing.d. None of these70. Focus groups of employees:a. should always be led by co-workers.b. should include employees with their supervisors in the same group.c. can be a valuable technique for improving a company’s operations.d. Should be saving lot of time71. With respect to research design:a. case studies may be used in both descriptive and exploratory research.b. experimentation may be used in exploratory research.c. case studies may be used in both descriptive research and experimentation.d. descriptive research may be categorized as either conclusive research or experimentation.72. In which of the following situations would an exploratory study NOT be appropriate?a. Analyzing selected causes or casesb. Conversations with individuals who have relevant informationc. Defining relationships so that hypotheses may be formulatedd. Measuring a brand’s share of the market73. As experiments _____ in naturalism, they approach pure _____ experiments, and as they become _____ artificial, they approach _____ experiments.a. increase; field; less; laboratoryb. decrease; field; less; laboratoryc. increase; field; more; laboratoryd. decrease; field; more; laboratory74. Consider the following question:“If you own your own home, what is its approximate value?”Under $50,000$50,000 – $70,000$70,000 – $100,000$100,000 – $150,000Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism?a. Categories are not mutually exclusive.b. List of alternatives is not collectively exhaustive.c. Two questions are being asked as one.d. All are valid criticisms.75. Calculate the sample mean using the following data:X4526434The mean is:a. 7.0b. 3.0c. 4.0d. none of the above76. Calculate the sample standard deviation using the following data:X4526The sample standard deviation is approximately:a. 0.84.b. 1.71.c. 2.25.d. none of the above.77. Calculate the standard deviation using the following data:X6432The standard deviation is:a. 0.84.b. 1.25.c. 1.71.d. none of the above.78. In attempting to estimate the amount of money which members of a target market segment spend yearly on toothpaste, a researcher wants to use a Z-value of 1.96 and an error of $0.50. If past research studies have found that the standard deviation for this type of study on this target market segment has been approximately $2.34, approximately what sample size should the researcher use in this study?a. 123b. 64c. 85d. None of the above79. If p = .40 for a sample size of 100, the standard error of the proportion is approximately:a. 0.05.b. 0.03.c. 0.07.d. none of the above.80. In a percentage cross-tabulation, the total number of respondents or observations may be used as a(n) __________ for computing the percentage in each cell.a. indexb. basec. centroidd. none of the above81. Which of the following statements about descriptive analysis is FALSE?a. For most projects, statistical analysis begins by reducing the raw data into a summary format.b. Tabulation refers to the orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format.c. Analyzing results by groups or categories is the technique of tabulation.d. A frequency table is the arrangement of statistical data in a row and column format.82. A Type II error is caused by failing to reject the __________ when the __________ is true.a. alternative hypothesis; null hypothesisb. significance level; hypothesisc. Type I error; hypothesisd. null hypothesis; alternative hypothesis83. If the t-statistic produces a value for t of 2.56 when the critical value of t is 1.96, the decision should be:a. to accept the null hypothesis.b. to accept both the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.c. to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.d. to reject both the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.84. If the observed value of t is 1.54 when the critical value of t is 1.96, the decision should be:a. to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.b. to accept both the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.c. to reject both the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.d. to accept the null hypothesis.85. When the means of more than two groups or populations are to be compared on one independent variable, __________ is the appropriate statistical tool.a. the t-testb. two-way ANOVAc. one-way analysis of varianced. a pooled estimate of the standard error86. The greater the value of Fa. the greater the sample size.b. the greater the total variation.c. the greater the probability of accepting the null hypothesis.d. the greater the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis.87. The F-test is frequently used in conjunction witha. chi-square analysis.b. analysis of variance.c. t-test of three means.d. Z-test of three proportions.88. When the data relating to two variables are simultaneously tabulated by categories, the simplest procedure to use isa. ANOVA.b. regression.c. correlation.d. cross-tabulation.89. The formula below represents the method for calculating the ______ .a. Z-test.b. F-test.c. Chi-square test.d. none of the above.90. In the formula Y = a + ?X, X represents:a. the independent variable.b. the dependent variable.c. the slope coefficient.d. the Y-intercept.91. The case study method has several distinct advantages over other methods ofdescriptive research. Which of the following is NOT one of those advantages?a. Data are often more accurate because of more intimate association between researcher and respondent.b. It provides a description of a real situation.c. It is an objective tool for observing and recording.d. It gives an in depth details of a subject unit92. One of the following research methods differs from other methods because it gives the researcher a high degree of control over the research situation. Which is it?a. Surveysb. Experimentsc. Observation studiesd. Secondary data studies93. Basic research is research that:a. addresses simple issues that are basic and research is not really needed.b. attempts to expand the limits of knowledge for a discipline.c. is conducted to make a decision about a specific real life problem.d. all of the above94. Which statement best describes the nature of basic research?a. Basic research requires the use of experimentation.b. The primary purpose of basic research is to facilitate the managerial decision process.c. Basic research is conducted to verify the acceptability of a given theory.d. Because basic research is exploratory, it does not require the use of scientific methodology.95. When a marketing manager makes an important decision because there is not sufficient time to conduct a research project, this is an example of:a. a situation in which the value of the research exceeds its costs.b. the nature of the type of decision (tactical or strategic) that must be made.c. a time constraint.d. the availability of data.96. Which of the following is an example of a major topic for business research?a. A buyer behavior research studyb. A job morale studyc. A market segmentation studyd. All of these97. When Ford Motor Co. brings together representatives from R&D, Finance, Marketing, Sales, and Marketing Research to work together on the design of a new type of automobile, this is an example of the use ofa. basic research.b. pure research.c. cross-functional teams.d. evaluation research.98. Whether business research should be conducted is determined by each of the following EXCEPT:a. employees’ attitudes toward the subject of the research.b. time constraints.c. the nature of the decision to be made.d. the benefits of the research in relation to its costs.99. A pilot study isa. an extremely rigorous research design involving formal methods for collecting data.b. a small-scale exploratory research technique that uses informal data collection methods.c. a good example of backward linkage.d. always the best way to approach business research situations.100. The four research design techniques for descriptive and causal research area. focus groups, surveys, pilot studies, and experiments.b. focus groups, surveys, experiments, and observation.c. secondary data studies, surveys, experiments, and observation.d. secondary data, focus groups, surveys, and experiments.101. Relative to the decision-making process, at what point should business research enter the process?a. Problem discovery and definitionb. Alternative formulationc. Evaluation of alternativesd. Implementation102. Any procedure that uses a small number of items or people to make a conclusion regarding a larger group known as the population is calleda. statistics.b. sampling.c. surveying.d. probability theory.103. Which type of research study is attempting to answer the question “Which of two sales training programs is more effective?”a. Exploratoryb. Descriptivec. Causald. Mall-intercept104. If the research problem were defined as “Will buyers purchase more of the product in a red or blue colored package?”, the most appropriate type of research would bea. exploratory.b. descriptive.c. causal.d. associative.105. To be most useful, how should research objectives be stated?a. They should be stated as broadly as possible to permit flexibility in applying the research.b. They should be stated as precisely as possible to avoid misapplying the research.c. Usually it makes little difference whether they are broadly or precisely stated as long as the objective is clear.d. Most research does not need a stated objective because the nature of the problem implies the objective.106. The appropriate research strategy to determine the demographic characteristics of owners of Ford Explorer SUVs would bea. descriptive design.b. exploratory design.c. simulation.d. field experiment.107. Research designs may be categorized according to their fundamental objective. Which of the following are research design categories?a. scientific, exploratory, descriptiveb. descriptive, research, experimentalc. descriptive, causal, exploratoryd. experimental, experience, exploratory108. Which of the following is designed to develop ideas and insights in decision-making situations, especially when only limited knowledge is currently available?a. Secondary researchb. Experimental researchc. Survey researchd. Exploratory research109. Which of the following is an advantage of secondary data as compared with primary data?a. Obtainable from reliable suppliersb. Usually less expensivec. Usually available in less timed. All of these are advantages.110. Which of the following is NOT a step in the process of problem definition?a. obtain permission from interested parties to research the problemb. ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesc. understand the background of the problemd. determine the unit of analysis111. Hypotheses have considerable practical value in planning and designing the research becausea. they force researchers to be clear about what they expect to find through the study.b. the formal statement raises crucial questions about required data.c. expected relationships among variables are expressed.d. all the statements are true.112. High cost, lower standardization of questioning, and limited geographic dispersion are disadvantages of __________ surveys.a. telephoneb. personal interviewc. maild. mall intercept113. Who among the following are LEAST likely to respond to a mail survey?a. Individuals interested in the general subject matter of the surveyb. People who hold extreme positions on the survey topicc. Less educated respondentsd. Those who receive a follow-up questionnaire114. If 400 people are mailed a questionnaire and 120 of them return it to the researcher, this survey is said to have a response rate ofa. 120.b. 3.33.c. 30 percent.d. 400.115. Which type of research study is attempting to answer the question “Which of two sales training programs is more effective?”a. Exploratoryb. Descriptivec. Causald. Mall-intercept116. An exploratory research design would be LEAST likely to be used toa. create a more precise formulation of a problem.b. clarify a basic concept.c. increase familiarization with a problem.d. describe the characteristics of a certain group.117. Which of the following is designed to develop ideas and insights in decision-making situations, especially when only limited knowledge is currently available?a. Secondary researchb. Experimental researchc. Survey researchd. Exploratory research118. Which of the following statements concerning secondary data is FALSE?a. Secondary data sources should be considered before primary data are collected.b. Internal secondary data are usually preferred to external secondary data.c. Data needed to complete a research project are usually attainable as secondary data.d. Secondary data are available from commercial sources.119. The number of automobiles that drive over a “counter cable” in the road near a proposed site for a convenience store is an example ofa. secondary data collection.b. exploratory research.c. an observation study.d. an experiment.120. Turnover will be higher among employees who perceive themselves as underpaid, than among employees who perceive themselves as paid fairly. This sentence is an example ofa. a categorical relationship.b. a research objective.c. a research question.d. a hypothesis.121. Which of the following is NOT a step in the process of problem definition?a. obtain permission from interested parties to research the problemb. ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesc. understand the background of the problemd. determine the unit of analysis122. A survey question about gender, to be answered with either “M” or “F,” represents a(n)a. categorical variable.b. unknown variable.c. dependent variable.d. continuous variable.123. The goal of defining the problem isa. to state the research question clearly.b. to have a single hypothesis.c. to translate a research problem into a managerial problem.d. to initiate exploratory research.124. According to the textbook, the most important reason for NOT beginning the formal quantitative research process isa. the budget is unspecified.b. top management has not given approval.c. the research department is overburdened with project requests.d. the problem has not been clearly defined.125. There are several advantages to focus groups. Which of the following is NOT an advantage?a. synergismb. snowballingc. spontaneityd. sentence completion126. Qualitative research:a. is essentially the same as quantitative research.b. generally employs rigorous mathematical analysis.c. is subjective in nature.d. is objective in nature.127. A researcher uses a cartoon drawing to which the respondent suggests dialogue that the cartoon characters might speak. This is an example of:a. a focus group.b. sentence completion.c. thematic apperception testing.d. word association.128. Discussion, such as informal conversations, with knowledgeable people, both inside and outside the company, are:a. knowledge acquisitions.b. mainstream conversations.c. experience surveys.d. pilot studies.129. Which of the following is NOT a reason why exploratory research is conducted?a. prospecting for clientsb. screening alternativesc. discovering new ideasd. diagnosing a situation130. Which of the following is a projective technique?a. depth interviewb. focus groupc. experience surveyd. none of these131. When the researcher obtains information from one or a few situations similar to the researcher’s problem, the research technique is referred to as a(n):a. focus group method.b. case study method.c. specific observation method.d. specific experience method.132. Three purposes for exploratory research are to:a. diagnose a situation, screen alternatives, discover new ideas.b. diagnose a situation, screen alternatives, provide quantification.c. discover new ideas, diagnose a situation, provide quantification.d. discover new ideas, screen ideas, provide quantification.133. An exploratory research technique in which individuals who are knowledgeable about a particular research problem are questioned is a(n):a. experience survey.b. focus group.c. projective technique.d. pilot study.134. A __________ is an unstructured free-flowing interview with a group of 6 to 10 participants.a. group dynamic sessionb. serendipity sessionc. funnel groupd. focus group135. Which of the following statements does NOT adequately describe focus groups?a. A snowballing effect often occurs where one individual often triggers a chain of responses from other participants.b. The session begins when each individual in turn is asked to answer the 5 to 10 questions from a standardized list.c. The flexibility of the group is an advantage.d. All of the above adequately describe focus groups.136. When a respondent is asked to complete the following statement: “A supervisor should not ________,” this is an example of:a. a poor test structure.b. the word association technique.c. the third-person technique.d. the sentence completion method.137. In investigating situations where interpersonal relationships are the subject of the research, the __________ technique is particularly useful.a. word associationb. focus group interviewc. role playingd. depth interview138. When a worker is asked to perform a task as if she were the supervisor in that work situation, this is an example of:a. a focus group interview.b. the case study method.c. the TAT projective techniques.d. role-playing139. Which of the following is a good way to verify the accuracy of secondary data?a. Intuitionb. Cross-checks from multiple sourcesc. The Internetd. None of the above140. Which type of secondary data is needed to answer the question “How many consumers of ages 18-35 live in zip code 63119?a. Fact-findingb. Data miningc. Model buildingd. None of the above141. An organization’s market share equalsa. revenues divided by net income.b. sales times profit.c. company sales divided by industry sales.d. industry sales divided by company sales.142. Which of the following is a characteristic of data from the Bureau of the Census?a. A reputation for poor qualityb. Not detailed enough for market researchc. Unavailable to the publicd. None are characteristics143. The Census of Population is an example of which type of external secondary data source?a. Trade association sourceb. Government sourcec. Books and periodicalsd. Commercial source144. Which of the following is NOT a common problem with secondary data?a. Outdated informationb. Variation in definition of termsc. Different units of measurementd. Takes too long to collect145. The Wall Street Journal is an example of which type of external secondary data source?a. Books and periodicalsb. Commercial sourcec. Trade association sourced. Media source146. Which of the following is NOT an example of data processing error?a. choosing an unrepresentative sampleb. typographical errors during data entryc. accidentally combining answers from two respondents during data entryd. inaccurate computer software147. Most survey research is __________ in nature.a. descriptiveb. causalc. exploratoryd. cross-sectional148. When an interviewer asks a respondent “What do you mean by that?, this is an example of a(n)a. probing question.b. pretest.c. CATI.d. item nonresponse.149. If we count the number of questionnaires returned in a survey, and divide this total by the number of eligible people who were asked to participate, we have calculated thea. CATI.b. response rate.c. sponsorship rate.d. cohort coefficient.150. When interviewers ask for clarification or expansion of answers to standardized questions, we call thisa. qualifying.b. standardizing.c. probing.d. conversing.151. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the personal interview?a. High participation rateb. Anonymity of respondentsc. Good opportunity to probed. Ability to use visual aids152. A researcher who is investigating consumer reactions to a videotape of a proposed television commercial is most likely to usea. telephone interviews.b. door-to-door interviews.c. mall intercept interviews.d. self-administered questionnaires.153. Which of the following should be included in the cover letter of a mail survey?a. Assurance of confidentiality of the datab. An incentive for participation in the studyc. Assurance that the survey will only take a few minutesd. A description of how the individual was selected to participate154. Geographic dispersion is a DISADVANTAGE of __________ surveys.a. telephoneb. personal interviewc. maild. none of these155. Once an Internet questionnaire has been developeda. the incremental cost of additional respondents is marginal.b. the anonymity of the Internet encourages respondents to provide honest answers to sensitive questions.c. re-contacting those who have not completed the survey is quick and easy.d. all these statements are true.156. Investigation of household trash in Arizona shows that the most popular baby food in Hispanic households is squash, while peas are the baby food winner in Anglo households. This is an example of:a. ethical issues in observation research.b. participant observation.c. voice pitch analysis.d. physical-trace evidence.157. If a researcher wanted to measure unconscious eye movements of subjects, she could use a(n):a. eye-tracking monitor.b. psychogalvanometer.c. unconsciometer.d. none of the above could be used.158. Hidden, unobtrusive observation is often used because:a. respondent error is minimized.b. subjects are aware they are being observed.c. it raises ethical questions.d. the observer is often well-known to the subjects.159. The formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given action,activity, or program has achieved its objectives is called:a. Basic research.b. Evaluation researchc. Motivational researchd. Applied research160. All of the following describe physiological measures of observation EXCEPT:a. pupilometer.b. eye-tracking..c. voice-pitch analysis.d. participant observation.161. If subjects change their normal behavior in order to cooperate with the experimenter, affecting the results of the experiment, this is called:a. the double-blind effect.b. the guinea pig effect.c. experimenter bias.d. the interaction effect.162. If there is a change in the presentation of unit price information (the __________ variable) had caused a change in the average unit price paid (the __________ variable).a. independent, dependentb. experimental, independentc. dependent, independentd. research, control163. The purpose of most business research experimentation is to measure and compare the effects of the experimental treatments on the __________ variable.a. independentb. dependentc. controld. extraneous164. One of the following research methods differs from other methods because it gives the researcher a high degree of control over the research situation. Which is it?a. Surveysb. Experimentsc. Observation studiesd. Secondary data studies165. The influence of specific events in the external environment that occur between the first and second measurements and are beyond the control of the experimenter is referred to as:a. selection.b. testing.c. maturation.d. history.166. In a test marketing study, initial trial purchase is most likely to be a(n):a. independent variable.b. control variable.c. dependent variable.d. random variable.167. If a study of factory workers finds that workers perform better on a job assembly task if they had been exposed to another type of job assembly task earlier in the study, the study is said to have which type of bias?a. Experimenter biasb.