Subject: General Questions / General General Questions
QuestionWeek 1 discussion“Critical Thinking in the Workplace” Please respond to the following:The video clip “Thinking on the Job” in the Webtext this week illustrates the importance of critical thinking, especially in work contexts. Define the concept of critical thinking in your own words. Discuss a time in either your work or personal life in which you needed to be able to use critical thinking to either solve a problem or acquire a skill.Determine the manner in which you would show a potential employer that you possess solid critical thinking skills. Give your opinion on whether or not you believe that individuals can increase their critical thinking skills. If you believe that they can, explain certain steps that individuals can take to improve this skill.Week 2 discussion“Understanding Barriers to Our Own Thinking” Please respond to the following:From the www.procon.org Website, select one (1) topic of your choice and read the Pro section and the Con section on the selected topic. Next, choose three (3) reasons listed under the Pro section and three (3) reasons listed under the Con section. Based on the biases discussed in Chapter 2 and the reasons presented at the Procon.org website:State your position on the selected topic. Determine the biases you experienced as you examined the reasons for and against your position.Describe your reaction to your experience of these biases.Week 3 discussion“Understanding and Analyzing Arguments” Please respond to the following:Use the Internet to search an example of an enthymeme in the media (e.g., Internet, television, radio, newspapers, etc.). Next, explain the example you searched and identify the implied premise in the enthymeme example.Week 4 discussion“Fallacies and Errors in Sound Reasoning” Please respond to the following:Use the Internet to locate at least two (2) advertisements that exhibit any of the following fallacies: equivocation, false authority, ad hominem, appeal to ignorance, or bandwagon. Post the videos in the discussion. Next, identify the fallacy used in the selected advertisements, discuss the primary reasons why you believe that the advertisers have used the fallacy in question, and examine whether or not their use of this type of fallacy is effective.From part 1 of this discussion, consider alternate strategies that the advertisers could have used in order to develop a more sound and persuasive argument. Explain the main reasons why you believe consumers ignore these errors in reasoning.Week 5 discussion“Identifying Misleading Information in an Argument” Please respond to the following:Consider the following argument: There are many arguments for the elimination or modification of current U. S. drug laws, but one of the most persuasive involves what negative effects drug laws are having on society in comparison with the effects of the drugs themselves. In the past ten years, most forms of drug use have dropped significantly, especially among teens. Despite this, non-violent drug offenders accounted for 21.1 percent of the federal prison population. First time drug offenders serve, on average, a sentence three months longer than kidnappers, nine months longer than burglars, and thirty-three months longer than sex abusers. In 1992, the average cost of keeping an inmate in either state or federal prison was about $20,000 per prisoner per year. The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, with 455 prisoners per 100,000 population. It is maintaining these prisoners at great expense in an environment where they are unlikely to develop a socially constructive attitude. Perhaps it is time that we reconsider our attitudes toward those who choose to use drugs; failure to do so may cost society even more than it already has.Determine whether or not the argument uses any deceptive statistics. Give your opinion on whether or not the argument has persuaded you. Explain why or why not.Determine the primary ways in which statistics or authority are used in your current position in developing persuasive arguments, and provide examples of such use.Week 6 discussion“Identifying Truth or Fiction” Please respond to the following:The video clip ‘The Baloney Detection Kit’ in the Webtext this week discusses the many ways in which an effective critical thinker assesses the claims made by others. Explain what you believe is the real difference between ‘science’ and ‘pseudoscience’.Examine the key reasons why so many people might seem to be attracted to more pseudoscience-type claims. Describe at least two (2) such claims that you have heard people make, and analyze the main reasons why such claims do or do not meet rigorous scientific methodology standards. Determine at least two (2) ways in which the material discussed this week has changed your own thinking.Week 7 discussionProblem Solving Interview Question” Please respond to the following:Respond to this typical interview question: Explain a specific example in which you utilized problem solving strategies to resolve a problem in the real world.Provide your feedback from the perspective of an interview coach to at least three (3) of your classmates.Week 8 discussion“The Relationship Between Language and Thinking” Please respond to the following:Consider the following quote by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, who believed that thought without language was impossible: “The limits of my language are the limits of my life.” For more information on Wittgenstein and his analysis on the primacy of language, watch the video “Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889 – 1951) The Limits of Language”, located at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgW_PFl-Xs4. Next, examine whether or not it is possible to think without using language. If you believe it is possible, describe the primary ways in which a person might enact so-called “languageless” thinking. If you believe it is not possible, describe what you foresee as major problems with languageless thinking.Week 9 discussion“Ethics and Trust in Critical Thinking Decisions” Please respond to the following:Imagine you are seeking information on a new car that you are thinking of buying. Determine the level of trust that you would place in information provided by the following: a salesman at the car lot, the dealer’s Website, social media (i.e. Facebook), an associate from work, and finally a close friend. Discuss the key factors involved in assessing the amount of trust that you put into each.If you were in a position to persuade another person, explain whether or not you would slant information in such a way as to make your point seem more credible if you sincerely believed that your position was correct. Discuss the primary ethical dilemmas that this scenario could cause for both you and the person whom you are trying to persuade.Week 10 discussion“The Value of Critical Thinking” Please respond to the following:Give your opinion on whether being an effective critical thinker makes decision making easier or more challenging. Justify your response.Consider the following statement: “The major difference between a successful person and one that is not successful is that the successful person, over time, tends to make better decisions than the less successful person.” Discuss whether or not you believe this statement to be true. Explain the fundamental ways in which effectively applying critical thinking concepts has helped you to become more successful.Week 11 discussion“Reflection” Please respond to the following:Reflect on what you have learned in this class. Describe the significant ways in which you would be able to utilize critical thinking in your personal and professional life.Discuss at least two (2) key concepts that you felt were most impactful to you this term and the manner in which you might use these concepts in the future.Week 2 assignment 1.1Assignment 1.1: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay – Part IPrewritingDue Week 2 and worth 30 pointsWhen looking for information about a particular issue, how often do you try to resist biases toward your own point of view? This assignment asks you to engage in this aspect of critical thinking by playing the “Believing Game.” The Believing Game is about making the effort to “believe” – or at least consider – the reasons for an opposing view on an issue.The assignment is divided into two (2) parts.In Part I of the assignment (due Week 2), you will first read a book excerpt about critical thinking processes: “The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful” at http://www.procon.org/sourcefiles/believinggame.pdf. Next, you will review the Procon.org Website in order to gather information. Then, you will engage in prewriting to examine your thoughts.Note: In Part II of the assignment (due Week 4), you will write an essay geared towards synthesizing your ideas.Part I – Prewriting: Follow the instructions below for this prewriting activity. Use complete sentences and adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.1. Select one (1) of the approved topics from the www.procon.org Website and state your position on the issue.2. From the Procon.org Website, identify three (3) premises (reasons) listed under either the Pro or Con section – whichever section opposes your position.3.For each of the three (3) premises (reasons) that oppose your position on the issue, answer these “believing” questions suggested by Elbow:What’s interesting or helpful about this view?What would I notice if I believed this view?In what sense or under what conditions might this idea be true?”The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing:Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA Style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals and abuses of language.Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking.Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic.Week 4 assignment 1.2Assignment 1.2: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay – Part IISynthesizing and WritingWhen looking for information about a particular issue, how often do you try to resist biases toward your own point of view? This assignment asks you to engage in this aspect of critical thinking.The assignment is divided into two (2) parts.For Part I of the assignment (due Week 2), you read a book excerpt about critical thinking processes, reviewed the Procon.org Website in order to gather information, and engaged in prewriting to examine your thoughts.* Remember that in the Week 2 Discussion, you examined the biases discussed in Chapter 2 of the webtext.In Part II of the assignment (due Week 4), you will write a paper to synthesize your ideas.Part II – WritingWrite at three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:1. State your position on the topic you selected for Assignment 1.1.2. Identify (3) three premises (reasons) from the Procon.org website that support your position and explain why you selected these specific reasons.3. Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website.4. Examine at least two (2) types of biases that you likely experienced as you evaluated the premises for and against your position.5. Discuss the effects of your own enculturation or group identification that may have influenced your biases.6. Discuss whether or not your thinking about the topic has changed after playing the “Believing Game,” even if your position on the issue has stayed the same.The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing:Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA Style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals and abuses of language.Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking.Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic.Week 9 assignment 2Assignment 2: Problem SolvingWhen faced with a problem, what do you do to solve it? This assignment asks you to apply a six-step to problem solving process to a specific problem scenario. You will write a paper that presents a synthesis of your ideas about solving the problem using this systematic approach. As Voltaire said, “No problem can withstand the assault of sustained thinking.”Choose one (1) of the problem scenarios as a topic choice for your paper (Note: Your professor must approve your topic choice before you begin work on the assignment.)Scenario 1: You have worked at your company for eleven (11) years. You have returned to college to earn a Bachelor’s degree in order to increase your chances for a promotion. You are nearly finished with your degree, when a supervisor’s position in a competing company becomes available in another state. The start date is in two (2) weeks, during your final exam period for your courses. The position offers a $15,000 per year salary increase, a car allowance, and relocation expenses. Your former supervisor works for the company and is recommending you for the position based on your outstanding job performance; if you want the job, it’s yours. All of the other supervisors at this level in the company have Master’s degrees, so you know that you would be expected to earn your Bachelor’s degree and continue on to a Master’s degree. Your present company offers tuition reimbursement, but the new company does not.Scenario 2: Your child comes home from school with an assignment sheet for a school project. He / she is very excited about the project and begins work immediately, doing research on the Internet and gathering materials. You read over the assignment sheet and notice that your child is not including all of the required items in the project, and you have some ideas for how to improve the quality of the presentation. You recently read an article in a parenting magazine about the importance of a child developing responsibility for his/ her own learning. You recall the many ways in which your parents took over your school projects. You, on the other hand, want to encourage your child’s confidence in his / her ability to complete a project independently. The next day, you are at the grocery store when you see a parent of a student in your child’s class. That parent has spent over $30 in supplies for the science project and is taking a day off of work to put the pieces of the project together.Scenario 3: You have two jobs—one during the week from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm, and one on Saturday from 3:00 pm to 11:00 pm. You are taking two classes—one that meets from 6:00 to 10:00 pm, and one class online. You have two kids—one who plays soccer, and one who is in band. You have two elderly parents who no longer drive. You have two siblings—one who lives two (2) miles away, and one who lives in another state. You have two (2) papers due in your classes the same week that one (1) of your children has a soccer tournament, and the other child has a band concert. You are coaching the soccer team, and you are in charge of fundraising for the band. You have a goal to complete your degree in two (2) years. Your doctor tells you that your blood pressure, your cholesterol, and your weight are too high and recommends several medications that cost you nearly $200 per month after your insurance co-pay.Scenario 4: You are a sales representative for a company that encourages staff to log time in the field and away from the office. You are expected to begin and end your day at the office. You notice that each day when you arrive and return another co-worker is already there, and you wonder whether this person spends most of his / her time at the office. At your weekly sales meeting, you are informed of your co-workers’ outstanding sales performance. You suspect that this co-worker is spending more time flattering the boss instead of working leads in the field, and as a result is getting the best client referrals. Your own sales numbers have steadily decreased since this other sales representative was hired.Scenario 5: Professor’s Choice – problem scenario presented by your professor.Scenario 6: Student’s Choice – Problem scenario presented by you.Review the six-step problem solving process outlined in the webtext, based on the article “The Problem Solving Process” located at http://www.gdrc.org/decision/problem-solve.html:Step One: Define the problemStep Two: Analyze the problemStep Three: Generate optionsStep Four: Evaluate optionsStep Five: Make your decisionStep Six: Implement and reflectWrite a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:1. Define the problem in the scenario that you have chosen.2. Analyze the problem in the scenario.3. Generate options for solving the problem in the scenario.4. Evaluate the options for solving the problem.5. Decide on the best option for solving the problem.6. Explain how you will implement the decision made and reflect on whether this option was the most effective.The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing:Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA Style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Recognize the hindrances to the decision-making process in order to apply problem-solving skills to a variety of situations.Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking.Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic.Week 6 exam 1Question 1 Which habit of critical thinking do individuals who keep food diaries and practice daily exercise BEST represent?Question 2 Which of these questions has the most potential for debate?Question 3 Which of the following is a core skill of critical thinking?Question 4 Sarah and her husband are shopping for a mortgage; she has been to multiple banks and has spoken to multiple vendors. Which critical thinking habit is Sarah practicing? Choose the BEST answer.Question 5 A rule of thumb for using to critical thinking to find solutions and make decisions is to seek which of the following?Question 6 Ever since she was in high school, Tamille has been deeply committed to her belief that animal testing in all forms is wrong. One day she gets into a debate about this topic with her classmate Carissa, a strong proponent of animal testing, and she finds herself getting angry and emotional during the conversation. Which is the MOST likely explanation for Tamille’s reaction?Question 7 Which statement best illustrates self-interested thinking?Question 8 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s concept of the single story can also be described as __________.Question 9 Which strategy helps combat hostility?Question 10 Christopher took a yearlong teaching job in another country to teach English to elementary-aged students. Christopher tells his mom that he can’t understand why students from another culture eat rice with every meal when bread is a tastier option. Which of the following statements is the MOST likely explanation for Christopher’s view on the other culture’s meals?Question 11 If I purchase a fuel-efficient car, then I will use less gas. If I use less gas, then I save more money. Which of the following conclusions is BEST supported by these premises?Question 12 A friend is expressing her discontent with an online retailer and states the following: “The website frequently crashes. You have to email to reach customer service. They do not always carry common sizes. You should avoid shopping with them.” Does her series of statements represent an argument? Why?Question 13 A(n) _________ is an argument with an unstated premise.Question 14 Vicky is trying to convince Todd that he should eat at the new Thai restaurant in town because the food is tasty, affordable, and healthy. She then explains that the food at the restaurant is healthy because the chefs avoid hydrogenated oils and use natural sweeteners when possible. Vicky’s argument about why the food is healthy serves as which of the following?Question 15 What type of argument does the following statement make? My dog lives in a house with children and has never bitten them. My dog is friendly toward children that he encounters. Therefore, it is unlikely that my dog would ever bite a child.Question 16 Jose really likes bacon and wants to wrap bacon around all of the appetizers to be served at a dinner party. Sarah disagrees and suggests guests might want a “bacon-free” option. Jose claims that no one should listen to Sarah because she is a crazy vegetarian. This is a(n) _________ fallacy.Question 17 Lance claims that the United States is the greatest country in the entire world, because all other countries are inferior. His argument commits which fallacy?Question 18 During her campaign, a senator released her financial information to the public. When questioned about some irregularities in her expenses, a spokesperson for the senator said the senator needn’t account for irregularities in her expenses. After all, there are other senators who have done far worse things. This is a(n) _________ fallacy.Question 19 William took a shower on a cold afternoon in winter. Promptly after getting out of the shower he put his bathrobe on and walked outside to get the newspaper. The next night he felt achy and feverish. His wife told him it was because he went out in the cold with wet hair. This is an example of the _________ fallacy.Question 20 In February, 2012, bill C-30 “Protecting Children from Internet Predators Act” was introduced in the House of Commons of Canada. Despite extensive Privacy Commission concerns about “warrant-less access” to all Canadian Internet and cell phone accounts under the proposed legislation, Canadian Public Safety Minister Vic Toews said “â ¦either stand with us or with the child pornographers.” This is a(n) _________ fallacy.Question 21 Don was researching apple production for a farm stand orchard. He found a .com that discussed apple production and sold apple cider, a .com that discussed apple production and sold dried fruit, a .org that educated the community on growing apple trees, and a .org that advocated for removing genetically modified (GMO) trees from orchards. Based upon what you know about website types and target audiences, which site should Don consider the MOST credible?Question 22 You are an expert in software architecture. If each statement about you is accurate, which statement might immediately cause your credibility to be doubted?Question 23 When claims are presented to you, _________ them by asking key questions.Question 24 Kevin tells his coworker Luis that it is going to rain tomorrow. Which of the following scenarios would make Kevin’s claim most credible to Luis?Question 25 Which of the following is a fundamental question to ask when evaluating claims?Week 11 exam 2Question 1 Cliff wants to determine whether people prefer red apples or green apples. In order to obtain good results, he decides to conduct this survey at a car festival. Out of the 5000 people who attended the festival, Cliff surveys 10 attendees randomly. The survey reads, “Which do you prefer, red apples or green apples?” Seven of ten people surveyed answer that they prefer red apples. From his survey, Cliff concludes that most people prefer red apples. Cliff’s results may not be reliable because of which of the following problems with his study?Question 2 While sitting in a parking lot after work, Brandon witnesses someone step around a garbage bag on the ground. This leads Brandon to question people’s reaction to litter. If Brandon were to conduct an investigation, which part of the investigation will he have already completed?Question 3 While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also _________.Question 4 Conspiracy theories often lack which of the following?Question 5 A student is designing an experiment to find out if the following statement is true: “If you get at least six hours of sleep, you will do better in class than if you get fewer than six hours of sleep.” The statement is an example of which of the following?Question 6 Angela and Glenn are deciding if they should get married. Their biggest point of contention by far is over money. Angela believes strongly that the right way to handle family finances is to save as much as possible for the future. Glenn, however, has no problem spending freely, using credit cards, and borrowing for lifestyle. As Angela is considering whether or not to marry Glenn, which of the following questions would help her to evaluate the problem of finances?Question 7 A good practice when making a decision involves which of the following?Question 8 Dharamdas is looking to buy a new laptop since his old laptop has finally stopped working. He has made a list of all the laptop brands that could potentially fit his needs, and now he is reading reviews and narrowing down his list based on what he learns. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Dharamdas practicing?Question 9 Clinton graduated college with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. While in school he turned down the option to stay an extra year and earn a master’s degree in engineering. Currently, Clinton is having a difficult time finding employment as a mathematician, while all of his engineering friends easily found jobs. What question is Clinton likely asking himself when reflecting upon his decision to not get the master’s degree, which has made it more difficult for him to find a job?Question 10 After weeks of touring different places to live, Maria signs the lease for an apartment in a new city. Three weeks later, she notices there is a severe ant problem in the apartment and she decides that next time she is apartment-hunting, she’ll ask the landlord about any potential insect problems before she signs her lease. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Maria practicing?Question 11 Why might advertisers find it appealing to promise that they have a “better” product than the competition?Question 12 To Albert, the word “love” brings up positive feelings about his son; to Raj, it brings up negative feelings about a previous relationship; and to Anthony, it refers to the warm feeling he gets during family gatherings. Which category of meaning are these statements describing?Question 13 A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?Question 14 “Acknowledging a right to benefit from the presence of animals requires government action to ensure human access to animals in a number of different spheres,” writes Jessica Pierce, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. The pragmatic meaning of the term “right” in this statement is _________.Question 15 Which statement best describes the relationship between intent and form?Question 16 A state senator testifies under oath not to accept a large campaign contribution. The prosecutor argues the senator lied under oath, so the senator should go to jail. What is the enthymeme in the prosecutor’s argument?Question 17 Consider the following argument: Premise 1: Steven played a video game with heavy gun use. Premise 2: Simulating shooting guns at people is wrong. Conclusion: Therefore, Steven should not be playing the video game. The statement, “Steven should not be playing the video game,” is an example of which of the following?Question 18 Which of the following is the BEST example of an amoral claim?Question 19 Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?Question 20 A top official of the government is presenting a case for the continued use of drone airplanes in military conflicts. The official states that “using drones during military surveillance missions is the right course of action because it saves soldiers’ lives.” What is the enthymeme in the official’s argument?Question 21 An expert may not be considered a credible source if he or she has _________.Question 22 The false dichotomy fallacy is a fallacy in which the arguer _________.Question 23 Which of the following is an example of a “loaded question”?Question 24 Annie argues that reducing carbon emissions in the United States will take a toll on the economy far exceeding any potential environmental benefits. Leo responds by arguing that several Scandinavian countries produce less carbon than the United States. What fallacy is Leo committing?Question 25 When the topic at hand is a complicated scientific issue, it is important to _________.